GUJARAT UNIVERSITY Noticification & Information for Ph.D. and M.Phil. Admission 2017-18

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GUJARAT UNIVERSITY  Noticification & Information for Ph.D. and M.Phil. Admission 2017-18A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Philosophiae Doctor) is a type of doctoral degree awarded by universities in many countries. Ph.D.s are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. The completion of a Ph.D. is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in most jurisdictions, use the title of "Doctor" (often abbreviated "Dr") or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, and may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD" or "DPhil" (depending on the awarding institute).[1]
The requirements to earn a Ph.D. degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. During the studies that lead to the degree, the student is called a doctoral student or Ph.D. student; a student who has completed all of their coursework and comprehensive examinations and is working on their thesis/dissertation is sometimes known as a doctoral candidate or Ph.D. candidate (see: all but dissertation). A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions.
A Ph.D. candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal.[2] In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university. Universities sometimes award other types of doctorate besides the Ph.D., such as the Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) for music performers and the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) for professional educators. In 2005 the European Universities Association defined the Salzburg Principles, ten basic principles for third-cycle degrees (doctorates) within the Bologna Process.[3] These were followed in 2016 by the Florence Principles, seven basic principles for doctorates in the arts laid out by the European League of Institutes of the Arts, which have been endorsed by the European Association of Conservatoires, the International Association of Film and Television Schools, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media, and the Society for Artistic Research.[4]
 

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